Governance and Growth – a Case Study of Norwegian Whey Protein Concentrate Exports

Jostein Vik, Gunn-Turid Kvam


In this article, we explore the global value chain (GVC) for whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and permeate powder (PP) through a case study following the practicalities of the export of WPC 80 and PP from the Norwegian farmer-owned dairy cooperative, Tine SA. We follow processing, packaging, logistics and export administration. The study suggests that the value chain and the partnership between Tine and Arla Foods may be described as a “captive” global value chain were Tine is transactional dependent on the main actor, Arla Food Ingredients. We conclude by discussing some features of power relations in global value chains and the global markets.


Global value chain; nutrionism; engineered food; agricultural export; WPC

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ISSN 1869-6945


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